Infectious Disease Models
Creative Animodel is a leading contract research organization. Our objectives are to provide top-quality and reliable services for numerous pharmaceutical industries and institutes on researches of new drugs and therapeutic methods against human diseases. These services include infectious disease researches in non-human primate models. We have advanced facilities and expert personnel assisting experiment design, project troubleshooting and data analysis.
Malaria is parasite-causing disease and wide-spreading in most developing countries and areas. Parasites of malaria can infect most reptiles, rodent and mammal including human. Transmitting via mosquito bite, sporozoa of parasite can invade human liver and then enters red blood cell to replicate and damage tissue. For studies of malaria infection, Creative Animodel has stored both human (Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae) and simian parasites (P. cynomolgi, P. knowlesi, P. inui, P. gonderi, P. fieldi, P. simiovale, P. coatneyi, P. fragile, P. simium, and P. brasilianum) colonies in either lab culture or frozen form. Mosquitoes are cultivated in temperature and humidity controlled environment, and fed with blood meal through parafilm membrane. As for host pathogenies, vaccine and drug efficacy tests, Creative Animodel maintains multiple primate species such as rhesus, cynos, owl monkey and squirrel monkey, which are excellent host model for researches of malaria pathology.
Mosquito cultivation chambers in Creative Animodel
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well known as cause of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a disease chartered with destroyed immune system and currently threatened 33 million people’s life in world. Creative Animodel fully understand difficulties of developing HIV model carrying human immune cells in small animal, we proudly provide our clients with popular NHP AIDS research models. Due to ethical reason, chimpanzees model of HIV-1 infection (type 1 HIV is generally considered as world-wide HIV virus and type 2 remained in concentrated area) has been abandoned, instead we use other primate species for HIV model. Furthermore, Creative Animodel provides simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) and SHIV model on Asian primate including rhesus macaques, which can express AIDS-like symptoms upon infection.
Normally HIV virus invades body cells by CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4 receptors, Creative Animodel provide SHIV model express CCR5 to allow virus infection established. Our AIDS research services focus on HIV/AIDS pathogenic studies and therapeutic/preventative strategy development. Creative Animodel provided therapeutic programs include vaccine development, optimization of HIV-protein and HIV-protein delivery to immune system. Vaccine development can be either preventive or immune-strengthened for different HIV-protein combinations. The standard procedures of potential HIV vaccine test in Creative Animodel can be briefly concluded as follow:
1) Inoculating vaccine with human dose through one of various routes (include intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, oral, intranasal, intratrachaeal, intravaginal or intrarectal routes), and collect blood sample every 4 to 6 weeks.
2) SIV virus challenging after vaccine boosting.
3) Immune analysis by measuring immune response in lymphoid organ exam
This process usually last more than 6 months.
NHP Tuberculosis (TB) caused by bacterium Mycobacterum tuberculosis (Mtb) and usually shows latent symptoms. NHP model of TB, especially macaques have remarkable advantages in immunological analysis and drug tests compared to other models: NHP can present almost all granulomatous lesions displays in human diseases and latent infection symptoms diagnostic methods of TB are well developed in NHP. Creative Animodel has successfully established TB in macaque model (cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys) by using different Mtb strains like Erdman, H37Rv or CDC1551. Progress of bacterial infection depends on dosage of applied Mtb, which normally varied from 101-102 colony-forming units (cfu) to 106 cfu. Mycobacterium agent can be delivered through aerosol route or under bronchoscope. Creative Animodel also can customized acute TB model by coinfection with SIV or blockage of TNF-alpha pathway.
Creative Animodel can conduct standard TB diagnostic detection servers:
- • PRIMAGAM (primate INF-γ test) and INF-γ release assay (in vitro blood based assay)
- • Tuberculin skin test
Histopathological lesions present in rhesus TB model. Top left: caseous lesion; Top right: mineralization of caseous lesion; Bottom left: cavitation; Bottom right: giant cell formed in a lesion
Hepatitis virus is one of greatest public health concerns in most developing countries. Technicians in Creative Animodel have extensive experience in developing primate, especially rhesus monkey and tree threw based hepatitis research model for vaccine and therapeutic studies. According to our previous projects, 90.6% of human HBV injected tree threw showed certain level of hepatic inflammation and displayed hepatic bio-markers such as HBsAg and Dane particles. Moreover, Creative Animodel also successfully coinfected tree threw with both HBV and HDV, serum ELISA results showed positive for HBsAg, HDAg and anti-HD.
Creative Animodel accept blood and other body fluid samples for hepatitis virus detection:
• Real-time PCR for hepatitis A virus (since HAV is non-enveloped RNA)
• ELISA detection for hepatitis B virus by using:
- o Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc)
- o Hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody (HBsAg, anti-HBs)
- o Hepatitis e antigen and antibody (HBeAg, anti-HBe)
• Immunoblot assay (anti-HCV) followed by RIBA test for hepatitis C virus detection
• Hepatitis virus quantitative assays
• Viral genotyping assays