The development of cells in hematopoietic and immune system is regulated by a complex network of interactions, so immunodeficiency mice can serve as an intermediate between the laboratory and the clinic to model human hematopoiesis and immune responses in vivo. Creative Animodel has performed these models which comprehensively covers these new epochmaking technologies and their applications, and will contribute to a better understanding of use of immunodeficiency mice to study human hematopoiesis. There are several mouse strains available in Creative Animodel including spontaneous, transgenic and humanized immunodeficiency mice.
Nude (nu) Strains:
● The single-gene mutation is at Foxn1 gene or HNF-3/forkhead homolog 11 gene which lead to a lack of body hair.
● The immune system is characterized by a decreased population of T cells.
● They have highly activated natural killer cells.
Scid (severe combined immunodeficient) Strains:
● The mutation is at Prkdc/scid (protein kinase, DNA activated, catalytic polypeptide) protein which is necessary for joining non-homologous ends of doubled-strained DNA.
● Scid strains including CB-17, C57BL/6J and Balb/c mice don’t response to B or T cell mitogens, and produce immunoglobulin leakiness which is sensitive to irradiation.
NOD (Non-obese diabetic) Strains:
● They are lack of expression for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype and SNP in CTLA-4 gene.
● NOD strains can develop spontaneous autoimmune diabetes.
Rag (recombination activating genes) Strains:
● Loss of rag1, rag2 or Prkdc gene in these models leads to the lack of both T and B cells.
● These mice have highly levels of NK cell activity but do not perform immunoglobulin leakiness.
● They show many innate immune defects, including NK cell dysfunction, low cytokine production and T and B cell dyregulation.
● Only 10% of mice present immunoglobulin leakiness.
● Deletion of the IL-2 receptor γ-chain impairs multiple cytokine signaling.
● These mice complete block the development of T and B cells.
NOD-scid IL2rg-/- Strains:
● Deletion of multiple genes causes severe impairment in T- and B-cell development and absence of NK cells.
Humanized Immunodeficiency Mice:
Humanized mice have contributed significantly to an in-depth knowledge of healthy and diseased human hematopoiesis, and have led to the translation of promising therapeutic compounds into clinical use. They can be applied for the following but is not limited to:
● Human specific pathogens
● Bone marrow toxicity
● Drug targets without cross-reactivity
● Graft versus host disease
● Immunogenicity of large molecule drugs