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Crossover Studies

Creative Animodel provides various species of animals to carry out preclinical in vivo crossover studies. Our experienced experts are responsible for crossover designs and data analysis according to your requirements. Reliable data of bioavailability and bioequivalence are provided to help you evaluate your drug candidates.

Crossover Designs

Crossover studies are used for drug evaluation by setting a sequence of random subjects and treatments. Crossover studies are appropriate for compounds with a relatively short half-life and minimal concern for increased immune response following repeated-dose administration. According to your test and reference drug candidates, Creative Animodel can provide classic two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence (2×2) crossover design and replicate designs.

The most common design is the classic 2×2 crossover design (Figure 1). Based on the 2×2 design, each subject receives consecutively the two drug products (i.e., T and R) in two different time phases, which are separated by an adequate washout period. The duration of the washout period is depending on half-life of your drug molecules and animal species.

Figure 1. The classic 2×2 crossover design

In replicate designs, each participant receives the same product more than once. The replicate administration may refer to both formulations or to only one of them. One advantage of replicate designs is the fact that they allow the calculation of the within-subject variability of a drug product, when this product is administered more than once to the same subject. One example of replicate designs is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. A two-sequence, four-period design

Advantages of Crossover Studies
• Comparison is carried out within or between subjects.
• Each crossover subject serves as its own control.
• Crossover designs reduce use of animals.

Animal Subjects from Creative Animodel
Our company provides a variety of animals as crossover subjects to meet your needs.
• Murine: mice, rats, guinea pigs
• Rabbits: NZW, NZW/NZR cross
• Dogs: beagle, mongrel, hound
• Pigs: Yorkshire cross, Yucatan minipig
• Small ruminants: sheep, goat
• Non-human primates

Creative Animodel is a professional provider of drug metabolism & pharmacokinetics services. Our staff and experts strictly observe the high quality standards to ensure the reliability of data. Besides the demonstrated assays on our website, we also provide customized services to meet your specific needs. We are glad to establish a long-term cooperation with our customers. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us.

1. Macheras, P.; Iliadis, A. Modeling in Biopharmaceutics, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics. European Journal of Pharmaceutics & Biopharmaceutics. 2016, 77(3):417-423.

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Creative Animodel

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