Age-related Macular Degeneration Models
Creative Animodel provides age-related macular degeneration (AMD) models to conduct pre-clinical drug screening, treatment evaluations, as well as fundamental studies. Based on your research objectives and parameters, our experienced experts will establish the most suitable animal model to meet your needs.
What Is Age-related Macular Degeneration?
AMD is a progressive condition of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), its supporting basement membrane and the overlying photoreceptor layer. Among individuals older than 65, AMD is regarded as the leading cause of blindness in the industrialized world.
Figure 1. Normal vision (A) and age-related macular degeneration (B)
AMD affects the macula, the central area of the retina responsible for high-acuity daylight vision. It can progress to a ‘‘dry’’, non-neovascular form leading to geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choriocapillaris and photoreceptors, or to a more rapid ‘‘wet’’, neovascular form, which occurs when new blood vessels invade from the choroid and penetrate Bruch’s membrane resulting in vascular leakage, hemorrhage and scarring. Dry AMD is much more common than wet, but choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in wet AMD accounts for the majority of the vision loss.
Figure 2. Retinal color image showing many drusen in the macula (A) and geographic atrophy (B)
Our Non-human Primate Models of AMD
Accurate animal models of a disease can assist greatly in the development of new therapies. With extensive experience and advanced platforms, we provide non-human primate models of AMD to conduct pre-clinical drug screening, efficacy & safety assessment, and fundamental studies. Creative Animodel has both spontaneous dry AMD and laser-induced CNV models.
• Non-human primate models of spontaneous dry AMD
Non-human primates are the only animals with a retinal structure closely resembling that found in humans, most notably the presence of a macula. In the center of the macula, the central fovea has multiple features designed to optimize spatial resolution. In addition, blood vessels are absent from the inner retina and a central capillary-free zone. Furthermore, several non-human primate species develop the early to intermediate stages of AMD. Macular degeneration occurs in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques at Creative Animodel. In both, retinal lesions are characterized by drusen accumulation in the central retina.
• Non-human primate models of laser induced CNV
The use of laser injury to disrupt Bruch’s membrane and induce CNV has been developed in a non-human primate at Creative Animodel. The model can be used to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the treatment. Typical argon laser exposure parameters for the induction of CNV have included a 50 um spot size, 100 ms duration and powers ranging from 300 to 700 mW. Outcome measures of efficacy include the extent of growth of laser-induced new vessels, the total area of blood vessel leakage and the percentage of laser lesions resulting in clinically significant (Grade III and IV) vessel leakage.
Creative Animodel is the best partner in pharmacological researches on drug discoveries and disease treatments. We can provide non-human primate models of AMD to conduct AMD treatment evaluations. Our high-quality image and reliable data further optimize drug development process accurately and efficiently. If you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to contact us.
1. Goverdhan S.; et al. Animal models of age-related macular degeneration. Drug Discovery Today Disease Models 2013, 10(4):e181-e187.
2. Zeiss C J. Animals as models of age-related macular degeneration: an imperfect measure of the truth. Veterinary Pathology. 2010, 47(3):396.