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Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis (AR), also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air and is the most prevalent atopic disease in the world. The clinical symptoms of AR are the nasal obstructions, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal pruritus. In the United States, more than 36 million people have AR that is directly related to seasonal stimuli, and even some have persistent symptoms year-round. In addition, environmental allergens such as pollen, pet hair, dust, or mold can also trigger AR.

The underlying mechanism involves IgE antibodies attaching to the allergen and causing the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine from mast cells. Histopathologic comparisons of the nasal and bronchial mucosa from allergic airways reveal similar inflammatory and epithelial cell alterations in both tissues. Therefore, the application of animal models to study the pathophysiology of AR is very necessary for clinical intervention protocols design and the development of new treatments therapeutics.

Allergic Rhinitis Models at Creative Animodel

Rodents like rat, guinea pig or mouse can produce allergen-specific antibody using adjuvant. Mice are the most frequently used animal among them because of several advantages over other animals, such as the established genetic information, various inbred strain, easy to produce transgenic or gene-targeted models. We provide a package of services including the development of animal models of AR and the drug candidates’ toxicity and efficacy evolutions screening.

• Allergen directly induced AR
Various induced options based on different requests are provided. For allergen, we have bovine serum albumin (BSA), ovalbumin (OVA), SEA, etc. As for adjuvant, complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), aluminum hydroxide gel (alum), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), bordetella pertussis vaccine, etc. are available. Intranasal, intratracheal or aerosol routes can be used to create sensitized animals.


Figure 1. Image of mouse being held for nasal fluid infusion.

• Transgenic Mouse Models
We developed the IgE-deficient (IgE–/–) murine model to assess the pathogenesis of AR. IgE is the central molecule responsible for allergic reactions, neutralizing IgE or inhibiting the IgE synthesis represents a rational approach for the treatment. By using this kind of model, we can help investigate the role of IgE and related cytokines, even more develop the novel drugs that mediate the IgE mechanism.

Our endpoint measurements include, but are not limited to:    Enumerating the frequency of nasal rubbing and sneezesThe mediators' level released from mast cells and basophils—especially histamines, tryptase, cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs), and platelet-activating factor (PAF)The level of other preformed and synthesized mediators in nasal tissues, predominately prostaglandins, interleukins, and chemoattractantsSerum level of allergen-specific IgE measured by solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) and Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-12) levels measured by ELISA from the centrifuged serum  and nasal lavage

Creative Animodel's talented researchers and scientists use state-of-art laboratories and equipment to develop new drugs in the humanity’s battle against allergic rhinitis. We will serve you with the most professional services to help reach your research goal better and faster. Please don't hesitate to contact us. We are looking forward to cooperating with you.

1. Tsunematsu, M.; et al. Establishment of an allergic rhinitis model in mice for the evaluation of nasal symptoms. Life sciences. 2007, 80(15), 1388-1394.
2. Van de Rijn, M.; et al. A murine model of allergic rhinitis: studies on the role of IgE in pathogenesis and analysis of the eosinophil influx elicited by allergen and eotaxin. Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 1998, 102(1), 65-74.
3. Szelenyi, I.; et al. Animal models of allergic rhinitis. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000, 50(11), 1037-1042.

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