Creative Animodel is an ideal partner in in vivo pharmacology research during the drug discovery and development process. With the state-of-the-art facilities and technologies, we have strong expertise in developing disease models suited for testing disease-modifying compounds or drugs. We currently provide comprehensive anemia models to improve the molecular understanding and treatment of anemia.
Anemia is a prevalent condition in which the amounts of red blood cells or hemoglobin are reduced, or the blood ability to carry oxygen decreases. The symptoms of anemia may include fatigue, weakness, pale or yellowish skin, shortness of breath, cold hands and feet, headache, dizziness, varying with the specific type of anemia. Anemia can affect anyone, but is most commonly found in women, children, and the elderly.
Types of Anemia
There are a variety of causes for anemia, which can be categorized into three types: blood loss, decreased red blood cell (RBC) production, and increased RBC breakdown. While iron or vitamin B12 deficiency, thalassemia, and neoplasms of the bone marrow result in decreased RBC production, genetic factors, infections, and certain autoimmune diseases result in increased RBC breakdown. Consequently, anemia can be classified into multiple types, such as aplastic anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, folic acid deficiency anemia, thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, etc. based on causes.
Based on BRC indices, anemia can also be divided into microcytic anemia, macrocytic anemia, hypochromic anemia, and normocytic anemia. Normocytic anemia is further divided into aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, acute posthemorrhagic anemia and other types of anemia. RBC indices that help diagnose the cause of anemia, include average red blood cell size (MCV), hemoglobin amount per red blood cell (MCH) and the amount of hemoglobin relative to the size of the cell (hemoglobin concentration) per red blood cell (MCHC).
Figure 1. Anemia types based on BRC indices.
Anemia Models at Creative Animodel
Creative Animodel is specialized in establishing a variety of anemia models that cover almost all types of anemia for preclinical testing. We apply the following methods to mimic anemia on mice or animal species you asked.
• Chemical induction
Phenylhydrazine (PHZ) is an effective chemical to induce hemolytic anemia in mice. Benzene injection in mice can mimic anemia of bone marrow suppression induced by chemotherapy. Other chemicals, like busulfan and chloramphenicol can be also used to cause bone marrow failure.
• Blood loss
Both tail bleeding and hemospasia via veins are useful methods to develop blood loss anemia and anemia of inflammation.
• Nutritional deficient diet
Iron-deficient diet can successfully cause iron deficiency anemia in mice, and folate or vitamin B12 deficient diet can induce folic acid deficiency anemia.
• Inbred strains
We provide excellent NZB and NZW inbred mice strains for the pharmacological research on autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
• Transgenic technology
Transgenic technology can be used to alter the expression level of gene of interest or delete gene to induce a condition similar to anemia. For example, overproduction of IL-6-hepcidin-ferroportin can cause a condition similar to anemia of inflammation. Other anemia, like Fanconi anemia, thalassemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and sickle cell anemia, can also be successfully induced in mice with our transgenic technologies. More customized anemia models are available to satisfy your specific research.
Creative Animodel has spent decades of efforts to provide specialty pharmacology services in human diseases. Our state-of-the-art facilities and profound pharmaceutical knowledge enhance our capabilities to optimize and exploit disease models to advance the pharmaceutical industries. We sincerely wish to discuss with you in a further step.
Weiss, G.; Goodnough, L.T. Anemia of chronic disease. New England Journal of Medicine. 2005, 352(10): 1011-1023.