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Cartilage Repair Models

Creative Animodel is an ideal partner in pharmacology researches during the drug discovery and development process. With years of dedication, our scientific team has strong expertise in developing a wide range of cartilage repair models to support drug development intended for clinical applications.

Overview of Cartilage Repair

Articular cartilage is a firm and rubbery material that reduce friction in the joint by acting like a “shock absorber”. When articular cartilage gets damaged or deteriorates, the joint’s normal movement is restricted, leading to a significant pain. A chondral defect refers to a damage to the articular cartilage, while an osteochondral defect is a damage involving both the cartilage and a piece of bone. The two defects can be caused by injury or trauma, repetitive use of the joint, congenital abnormalities, and some hormonal disorders that impact bone and joint development.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as aspirin, naproxen, and ibuprofen) and other conservative treatments usually only alleviate pain without treatment on the underlying problem.

Cartilage repair and regeneration is a treatment of a chondral/osteochondral defect. The common methods to restore damaged articular cartilage are microfracture, mosaicplasty, OAT (osteoarticular transplant), ACI (autologous chondrocyte Implantation), cartilage transplantation, and the promising stem cells-based cartilage regeneration. Currently, however, no single strategy, or no combination of strategies, can provide surgeons with feasible options for successful long-term outcomes in most patients. Thus, there is a demand for novel strategies and optimisation of current strategies.

Cartilage Repair Models at Creative Animodel

We provide a wide spectrum of cartilage repair models for preclinical studies based on surgical methods, which are widely used to create a chondral/osteochondral defect in the laboratory.

Table 1. The comprehensive cartilage repair models provided by Creative Animodel.

SpeciesJointsCartilage thickness (mm)Defect type and size
RatKnee0.1Chondral/osteochondral; 0.75~3 mm;
RabbitKnee, shoulder0.21~0.56Chondral/osteochondral; 2~4 mm; Critical  size = 3 mm
Sheep/ GoatKnee0.4~1.5Chondral/osteochondral; 4~15 mm; Critical  size = 6~7 mm
DogKnee, shoulder, elbow, hip, ankle0.95~1.3Chondral/osteochondral; 3~12 mm; Critical  size = 4 mm
HorseKnee, carpus, ankle1.5~2.0Chondral/osteochondral; 6~20 mm; Critical  size = 9 mm

The evaluation of cartilage repair can be achieved with a large variety of methods. We provide integrated outcomes assessments adapted to specific models:
• MRI, CT, micro-CT, and radiography platforms.
• Subjective function, visual analog scale (VAS).
• India ink staining, histology, gross pathology assessments.
• Biochemical, and biomechanical assessments.
• Arthroscopic scoring, range of motion (ROM), muscle mass, kinetics and kinematics

Creative Animodel offers end-to-end validated preclinical models and related nonclinical evaluation services of drug candidates. Our vast experience in bone physiopathology allows us to offer a wide range of services suited for your individual needs that contribute to therapies development intended for clinical applications.

1. Cook, J.L.; et al. Animal models of cartilage repair. Bone and Joint Research. 2014, 3(4): 89-94.
2. Goebel L.; et al. Animal Models in Cartilage Repair. Cartilage. Springer International Publishing, 2017: 189-206.

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Creative Animodel is a world's leading commercial provider of custom animal model services. We offer top-quality services at unbeatable prices. Our customer service representatives are available 24 hours a day, from Monday to Sunday.

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