Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) Models
Creative Animodel is a worldwide pharmacology services provider. Based on our rich experience in comprehensive preclinical models of human diseases, we can help evaluate the efficacy and safety of new drugs. We provide all supports including model selection consulting, tests performing and data analysis. The diseases we studied include cancer, inflammation, cardiovascular disease, pain, metabolic disease, etc.
What Is Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH)?
Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), also known as type IV hypersensitivity reactions, is a cell-mediated immune response associated with Th1 reactivity which can be induced in response to certain environmental or microbial antigens. The reactions are mediated by soluble or cell-associated antigens primarily involving CD4+ or CD8+ T cell activation. The mediators are released from activated T cells, then T cells will activate local endothelial cells. Meanwhile, they recruit macrophages which will lead to local inflammation and swelling.
Figure 1. The process of DTH. (Parham P, 2014.)
The DTH reaction of the human body consists of two distinct stages, that are the afferent/sensitization phase and the efferent/elicitation phase. And there are two common forms of DTH reactions, which involve the tuberculin DTH reaction, and contact sensitivity. The tuberculin DTH reaction is a cell-mediated reaction following infection with bacterial or viral antigens, whereas the contact sensitivity reaction is associated with epicutaneous exposure in sensitized individuals.
DTH Models Provided by Creative Animodel
Mice have the same DTH reaction process as humans. So that mice will be the most common and representative animal models to evaluate the cell-mediated immune responses to new drugs. In mouse models, during the sensitization phase, animals are subcutaneously exposed to a specific protein or hapten allergen that is typically emulsified with an adjuvant. Models of haptens are oxazolone amine, and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNFB). Another model uses ovalbumin. We have ear edema mouse models induced by oxazolone and DNFB, footpad mouse models induced by mBSA, etc.
We have a package of evaluations for new candidates based on DTH models, but not limited to:
• PK/PD blood collections
• Cytokine/chemokine analysis
• Clinical chemistry
• Histopathological evaluation
Creative Animodel has rich experience in pharmacology research. We have the state-of-the-art facility and profound pharmaceutical knowledge which allow us to provide support in all aspects of new drug discovery and development. Our in-house scientists with deep therapeutic expertise will maximize their scientific value in the drug discovery and development process to meet your special requirements. Therefore, we will be the best choice for your pharmacology research. Hope all of our efforts can help you reach your next breakthrough. Looking forward to cooperating with you soon.
1. Parham P. The immune system. Garland Science, 2014.