Diabetic Retinopathy Models
Creative Animodel provides non-human primate models (NHP) of diabetic retinopathy (DR) to conduct pre-clinical drug screening, efficacy & safety assessment, and fundamental studies. The NHP model is the highest transnational models for novel drug development for which replicates the human ophthalmic pathologies including retinal thickening, hemorrhage, cyst and fluid, morphological changes of vessels, optic nerve, etc.
What Is Diabetic Retinopathy?
DR, a major complication of diabetes mellitus, is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Early diagnosis and prevention of retinopathy in diabetic individuals is crucial for preventing vision loss. There are more than 300 million people suﬀering from diabetes, and is expected to affect an estimated 500 million by 2030. Prolonged hyperglycemia causes irreversible pathological changes in the retina, leading to proliferative DR with retinal neovascularization and diabetic macular edema (DME) in some individuals. Studies have shown that nearly all individuals with type 1 diabetes and more than 60% of individuals with type 2 diabetes have some degree of retinopathy after 20 years. Clinically, DR can be classified into non-proliferative DR (NPDR) (Fig. 1A) and proliferative DR (PDR) (Fig. 1B). Current studies suggest that approximately one-third of the diabetic population have signs of DR and about one-tenth have vision-threatening stages of retinopathy, including PDR and DME.
Fig. 1. Clinical features of DR.
Treatment of DR can be achieved through an enhanced understanding of disease pathogenesis. However, because most structural, functional and biochemical studies cannot be carried out in human subjects, animal models are essential for studying DR pathology, and thus for developing new and better treatments.
Our Non-human Primate Models of Diabetic Retinopathy
The structural similarity of primate eyes to human eyes makes them potential models for research on eye diseases. The studies of DR in monkey at Creative Animodel can be divided into two groups: type 1 diabetic model and type 2 diabetic model.
• Type 1 diabetic model
Spontaneous or pharmacological induction of hypertension in the hyperglycemic monkeys results in ischemic retinopathies, such as cotton-wool spots which are found in the peripapillary region, microaneurysms, capillary dropout, capillary dilatation, etc.
• Type 2 diabetic model
DR studies have also been carried out on monkeys that spontaneously develop type 2 diabetes. Our type 2 diabetic primate models can reveal hemorrhages, large areas of retinal capillary non-perfusion, microaneurysms, cotton wool spots, intraretinal hemorrhages and hard exudates in the macula.
Our Imaging Capability
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus photography (FP) are the most important tools in ophthalmology. Creative Animodel has extensive OCT and FP experience for ophthalmology study to help conduct pre-clinical drug screening and efficacy & safety assessment.
• OCT—focusing on retinal thickness, drusen, cyst and fluid
• Retinal thickness analysis: point counting and thickness map
• FP—focusing on retinal exudate, hemorrhage, morphological changes of vessels and optic nerve by SIVA software
Creative Animodel will keep close communication and coordination with you during the period of both model establishment and drug assessment. Therefore, we could be the best partner for your research to understand the pathogenesis of diseases in human, defining novel therapeutic targets as well as screening of novel therapeutic drugs. If you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to contact us.
1. Robinson R.; et al. Update on animal models of diabetic retinopathy: from molecular approaches to mice and higher mammals. Disease Models & Mechanisms. 2012, 5(4):444.