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Enzymes

Creative Animodel, a professional contract research organization, has conducted numerous enzymes-related assays. With experienced experts and cutting-edge technologies, we can provide high-quality and reliable services in a time-saving and cost-efficient manner.

An Overview of Enzymes

Enzymes that are macromolecular biological catalysts can accelerate chemical reactions. Most enzymes are proteins, while some others are catalytic RNA called ribozymes. Enzymes have a wide range of functions inside living organisms and most processes in biological cells require the presence of enzymes to occur at significant rates. In drug discovery and development, enzymes are attractive targets due to their importance in the life processes and in pathophysiology. In addition, enzymes are highly amenable to inhibition with small molecular weight and drug-like molecules. Therefore, enzymes become the target of novel drug discovery and design efforts at major pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Enzymes are one of the most important groups of drug targets, and identifying possible ligand-enzyme interactions is essential in many drug discovery processes.

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Figure 1. Activation and inactivation of enzyme reactions (Alberts, 2013)

Enzyme Assays at Creative Animodel

• Protease profiling
Proteases are a kind of enzymes that perform proteolysis and are involved in digesting long protein chains into shorter fragments through splitting the peptide bonds that link amino acid residues. Proteases are a relevant drug target class due to their importance in the pathology of diseases. Creative Animodel provides a wide portfolio of more than 50 proteases including serine, cysteine and metalloprotease families.

• Phosphatase profiling
Phosphatases play important roles in removing phosphatase groups and reversing the effect of kinase directed phosphorylation. Creative Animodel has developed a reliable solution to screen your focused chemical libraries or profile your lead compounds for their inhibitory effects on phosphatases.

• DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) profiling
DNMTs can carry out the addition of methyl groups to the DNA molecules, which is called DNA methylation. It is reported that abnormal DNA methylation associated with increased expression or the activity of DNMTs has been found in many diseases, especially in cancer. Creative Animodel offers a reliable portfolio of DNMTs, including DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B.

• Histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and histone demethylases (HDMTs) profiling
Histone modification as one of the important epigenetic regulation mechanisms plays a critical role in biological processes, including regulation of chromatin structure dynamics and gene expression. HMTs and HDMTs work in opposition to each other to regulate histone methylation. HMT and HDMT inhibitors are currently being developed as therapeutic drugs for applications in cancer and many other diseases. Creative Animodel offers HMTs (including DOT1, EZH1, EZH2, etc.) and HDMTs (including JARID1A, JARID1B, JARID1C, etc.) profiling to accelerate your drug discovery and development.

• Histone acetylases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) profiling
The histone acetylation levels result from the balance of the activities of HATs and HDACs. HAT activation or inhibition displays important effects on several diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. HDACs are involved in the development of human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and neurological diseases. Creative Animodel offers HATs (including GCN5, HAT1, etc.) and HDACs (including HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, etc.) profiling.

Our Advantages
• Meet or exceed the latest regulatory guidance of FDA, EMA or other regular agencies
• Offer comprehensive and high-quality reports
• Perform with quick turnaround times and strict quality controls

With years of experience, Creative Animodel can provide professional enzymes-related assays for novel drug discovery and development. We have a team of professional scientists with pharmaceutical knowledge to support you in all steps of drug discovery and development. If you have any questions or other specific needs, please feel free to contact us.

Reference
Alberts B., et al. Essential cell biology. Garland Science, 2013.

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