Creative Animodel is an ideal partner in in vivo pharmacology research during the drug discovery and development process. With the state-of-the-art facilities and technologies, we provide non-human primate models of glaucoma to conduct preclinical drug discovery, efficacy and safety assessment, as well as fundamental studies.
What Is Glaucoma?
Worldwide, glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness and visual field defects. It is estimated that the disease will affect over 80 million people by 2020. Glaucoma is not one single disease entity and rather, comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders; this makes drug discovery difficult. The brainstem, visual cortex and visual pathway are impacted by the disease and results in progressive blindness due to chronic optic nerve damage and a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The most common form of glaucoma is open-angle which is a multi-factorial optic neuropathy defined by open anterior chamber angles, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), progressive optic nerve (ON) fiber loss and visual field defects. Similar to other neurodegenerative disorders, glaucoma correlates with age and as improvements in healthcare denote an increased lifespan for our population, a larger economic burden will result from an increasing number of people at risk of developing visual impairment.
Figure 1. Comparison of normal eye and glaucoma
Non-human Primate Models of Glaucoma
The discovery of therapeutic drug targets relies heavily on animal models which represent a valuable tool for understanding both the progression and cause of human diseases. Creative Animodel has developed non-human primate models of glaucoma for the study of the pathophysiology of human glaucoma and drug discovery. Our animal models are characterized by low cost, reproducibility, easy disease-induction and limited side effects to neighboring tissue. Our glaucoma models include:
• Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) models
POAG is characterized by elevated IOP, acquired loss of RGCs and atrophy of the ON. We use argon laser photocoagulation which results in IOP elevation in 70% of the animals. Histopathologic specimens from eyes with elevated IOP and ON cupping show selective loss of RGCs and thinning of the nerve fiber layer compared with specimens from untreated controls suggesting that glaucoma is achieved.
• Other experimental models of IOP elevation
Our monkey models of chronic IOP elevation are developed by using latex microspheres or autologous fixed red blood cells. We also establish acute elevation of IOP which can be used to study the mechanism of ON damage.
Advantages of Non-human Primate Models
• Have close relative and high homology with humans;
• Own almost identical cetinal and ON anatomy like humans’;
• Improve clinical indicators of initial optic nerve damages in glaucoma broadly.
Creative Animodel has spent decades of efforts to provide professional pharmacology services in human diseases. We are your best partner for your research to understand the pathogenesis of diseases in human, define novel therapeutic targets as well as screen novel therapeutic drugs. If you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to contact us.
1. Mcnally S, O’Brien C J. Drug discovery in glaucoma and the role of animal models. Drug Discovery Today Disease Models. 2013, 10(4):e207-e214.
2. Bouhenni R A.; et al. Animal models of glaucoma. Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology, 2012, 2012(3):692609.