Inflammatory Bowel Disease Models
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions in the gastrointestinal tract, mostly seen in the colon and small intestine. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are two principal types of IBD. Crohn's can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, while ulcerative colitis is restricted to the colon and the rectum. Symptoms of IBD vary from patients, with the present of common symptoms including vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, internal cramps, muscle spasms and weight loss. Studies of IBD have been investigated for years, and there have been several significant findings and explanations such as the involvement of NOD2 and NF-κB pathway. However, relatively little is understood regarding the mechanisms of the disease.
Figure 1. The intestinal conditions of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
According to the data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), IBD affects 1 million to 1.5 million patients in the United States every year. The direct treatment costs for patients with IBD are estimated to be more than $6.3 billion per year. There remains considerable unmet medical needs particularly in patients with severe or complicated clinical manifestations.
IBD Models at Creative Animodel
A range of murine models has been used to study the mechanisms and therapeutics of IBD. Creative Animodel fully understands the significance of IBD related research and the importance of choosing the right mice model in IBD-related research. We will work side-by-side with you to find the most appropriate animal model for your studies.
Crohn’s disease models
Indomethacin (INN) is a nonsteroidal drug with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. The injection of INN could significantly increase the mucosal permeability of small intestine and further cause damage and inflammation condition to the small intestine in rats. These symptoms make it an appropriate model for Crohn’s disease research and can be used for new drug or therapy investigation.
Ulcerative colitis models
• DSS-induced models
Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is a sulfated polysaccharide with anticoagulant properties to induce ulcerative colitis. DSS is directly toxic to gut epithelial cells of the basal crypts and thus harms the integrity of the mucosal barrier. The clinical symptoms of DSS treated models are quite similar to human ulcerative colitis symptoms. Hence, DDS-induced models are the most widely used mice models for the studies of IBD.
• TNBS-induced models
Dissolving the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in ethanol and intradermally administering to a mouse through a catheter is a suitable method to induce ulcerative colitis. Ethanol is required to break the mucosal barrier, whereas TNBS is required to antigenize colonic autologous and render them immunogenic to the host immune system. TNBS models normally show more severe damages in the gastrointestinal tract compared to DSS models.
• Bacteria induced models
Direct oral infection of the gram-negative Salmonella typhimurium or Salmonella dublin into mice is an effective method to establish bacteria induced models, which can result in systemic infection that may mask the phenotype of intestinal inflammation. In addition, adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strain isolated from the ileum of colitis patients and has been shown to exacerbate intestinal inflammation. Induction of colonic inflammation in animal models using AIEC infection requires mild epithelial damage, such as low-dose DSS treatment. The phenotype of the colonic inflammation caused by these bacteria has similar histopathological characteristics to human colitis.
• IL-7 Transgenic models
IL-7 is a pleiotropic cytokine and a candidate risk gene associated with colitis. Our company offers IL-7 transgenic mice overexpressing the murine IL-7 DNA. At 1–3 weeks of age, the mice develop acute colitis, characterized by a mixed cellular infiltration. At 8–12 weeks of age, the mice display rectal prolapse and remittent intestinal bleeding.
IL-10 deficient mice models
It is known that genetic polymorphisms at the IL-10 locus confer increased risks of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Mice with targeted deletion of IL-10 develop spontaneous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate made up of lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils.
Creative Animodel is dedicated to providing the most suitable animal model for IBD research to facilitate the development of potential treatments. We will work closely with you on every step and give you the best assistance with your research. If you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to contact us.
1. Kiesler, P; et al. Experimental Models of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Cellular & Molecular Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2015, 1(2):154.
2. Low, D; et al. Animal models of ulcerative colitis and their application in drug research. Drug Design Development & Therapy, 2013, 7:1341.