Inflammatory Pain Models
Creative Animodel is a leading biotech company dedicated to providing super-quality inflammatory pain models. With extensive experience and advanced platforms, we provide a comprehensive series of in vivo pharmacology services based on our inflammatory pain models to help you understand the efficacy of your drug candidates.
What Is Inflammatory Pain?
Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators. However, this protective process may stimulate nerves and cause inflammatory pain. It may occur with penetration wounds, burns, extreme cold, fractures, arthritis, autoimmune conditions, excessive stretching, infections and vasoconstriction.
Figure 1. The mechanism of inflammation pain. Tissue injury evokes a complex series of cellular responses that together drive hyperalgesic states (Guan Z. et al., 2016).
Inflammatory pain manifests as spontaneous pain and pain hypersensitivity. Spontaneous pain reflects direct activation of specific receptors on nociceptor terminals by inflammatory mediators. While, pain hypersensitivity, an essential feature of inflammatory pain, is the consequence of early posttranslational changes, both in the peripheral terminals of the nociceptor and dorsal horn neurons, as well as later transcription-dependent changes in effector genes.
Inflammatory Pain Models Provided by Creative Animodel
Although inflammatory pain models contain thermal-induced models, mechanical-induced models and chemical-induced models (formalin, carrageenan, adjuvant, etc.), the chemical-induced models remain the main position. Creative Animodel provides comprehensive in vivo pharmacology services based on our widely used inflammatory pain models, which can be used to determine efficacy of steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as opiates and novel therapeutics.
• Formalin-induced model: The formalin-induced model can be used for evaluation analgesic effects of anti-inflammatory drugs and be frequently used as a model for investigating nociceptive mechanisms during cutaneous acute and inflammatory pain. Since each animal will provide information from both acute nociceptor activation and the subsequent sensitization, this biphasic response makes the formalin-induced model very useful.
• Carrageenan-induced model: By injecting polysaccharide carrageenan, it is possible to induce inﬂammation in the injected tissue. Similar to the formalin injection, injection of carrageenan induces tonic nociceptive response that results in sensitization including hyperalgesia. Thus, this model is used for quantifying spontaneous behavior, such as licking, lifting, and protection of the injected site that occurs after injection. It is also used for testing the nociceptive threshold of the thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia.
• Adjuvant-induced model: By injecting complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into the animal, we have established adjuvant-induced model with a more prolonged inflammatory response that lasts for several weeks. Therefore, it is considered as a good model for the development of treatments for persistent inflammatory pain.
Additionally, our team can tailor other different inflammation pain models according to the customers’ needs. Besides, with our standard pain management programs, our in-house scientists can evaluate the therapeutic effects of your drug candidates.
Creative Animodel has years of experience in the field of building disease models. Our scientists have a deep understanding of inflammation pain mechanisms and can perform pharmacology investigations for your drug candidates on those models. Through our strict supervisory and regulatory systems, we can ensure accuracy and high-quality reports.
1. Guan Z.; et al. Contemporary views on inflammatory pain mechanisms: TRPing over innate and microglial pathways [J]. F1000Research, 2016, 5.