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Otitis Media Models

Creative Animodel, a leading biological contract research organization, has years of experience in the field of pharmacology. With highly-quality animal models and experienced experts, we are capable of providing clients multiple services related to otology. And we will do our best to help you promote your research.

What Is Otitis Media?

Otitis media is defined as inflammation of the middle ear, which is one of the most common pediatric infections. While it is usually treated without difficulty, up to 20% of children also may progress to long-term complications that include hearing loss, impaired speech and language development and other irreversible diseases.

Otitis media is usually due to inflammation of the mucous membranes in the nasopharynx, which can be caused by a viral URTI, strep throat, or possibly by allergies. Because of the dysfunction of the Eustachian tube, the gas volume in the middle ear is trapped and parts of it are slowly absorbed by the surrounding tissues, leading to negative pressure in the middle ear. Eventually, the negative middle-ear pressure can reach a point where fluid from the surrounding tissues is sucked into the middle ear's cavity (tympanic cavity), causing a middle-ear effusion.

Figure 1. A: A sketch of Otitis Media. B: A bulging tympanic membrane which is typical in a case of acute otitis media.

Otitis Media Models Provided by Creative Animodel

• Acute Otitis Media (AOM)
Injection of bacteria through the tympanic membrane is the most common way of inducing acute otitis media in animals. Common inductors include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are also commonly used in experimental studies.

Figure 3. 4 days after induction of acute otitis media by inoculation of a bacterial pathogen via the trans-tympanic membrane. A: Right ear. B: Left ear.

• Otitis Media with Effusion (OME)
Two methods of inducing OME are available. One is Eustachian tube ligation or cauterization using a trans-neck or trans-oral approach and the other is injection of chemical materials through the tympanic membrane.
Trans-neck or trans-oral approach is normally used to simulate the condition of dysfunction of the Eustachian tube cause of otitis media. Here are main methods.

Figure 4. Trans-neck approach to ligation or cauterization of the Eustachian tube for otitis media with effusion. A: Midline incision. B: Elevation of platysma. C: SCM and belly of digastric muscle. D: Exposure of bulla and Eustachian tube orifice. SCM: sternocleidomastoid muscle.

Figure 5. Trans-oral approach to ligation or cauterization of the Eustachian tube for otitis media with effusion. A: Electrical cautery of pharyngeal orifice of the Eustachian tube. B: Pharyngeal incision and bulla exposure. C: Three days postoperatively.

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