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Rheumatoid Arthritis Models

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic, autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the joints. This creates chronic inflammation and causes a thickened synovium, swelling and pain around the joints. RA has been a burden to patients since it could lead to pain, disability, and even worse results. It could also affect other parts of the human body including eyes, mouth or lungs.

While the cause of RA is not clear yet, it is certain that RA affects plenty of people all over the world. About 0.5 to 1% of adults in the developed world has RA. In the United States, there are 1.5 million people suffering from the disease. The number of women who have RA is three times more than the man’s. Additionally, middle-aged people around 30-60 years old are more frequent to be affected. RA will cause a series problem threatening people’s health and life.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Models at Creative Animodel

We offer the most comprehensive preclinical animal testing services for rheumatoid arthritis, which range from animal models’ establishment to lead drug candidates’ toxicity and efficacy evolutions in various species.

NHP models
Non-human primate (NHP) rheumatoid arthritis models are extremely difficult to generate because of the low and inconsistent incidence in monkeys. To solve this issue, scientists at Creative Animodel experimented type II collagen induced arthritis in Cynomolgus monkeys, and successfully established a reliable NHP arthritis model that can be used in rheumatology studies, and inflammation related anemia or pain studies.

Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model
Among the different animal models, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model is the most popular and commonly used model. CIA model is induced by immunization with heterologous type II collagen in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). CIA shows the same clinical, histological and immunological features with the human rheumatoid arthritis including an increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, erosion of bones, and pannus formation.

Figure 1. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. (a), (b) and (c) respectively represent arthritic hindlimbs with severity scores of 4, 3, and 2. (Brand D.D.; et al, 2007)

Collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) model
Collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) is a simple and synchronized alternative to the CIA model. The advantages of CAIA model compared to the CIA model are that CAIA model has rapid disease onset (24 to 48 hours), high uptake rate, synchronicity and lack of influence of Freund’s adjuvant. Therefore, this model is perfect for investigating the pathological role of individual gene products, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, screening and evaluating anti-inflammatory agents.

Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model
Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model is known for its reliability and well-understanding. It is mostly used for evaluating potential treatment of RA and other preclinical or clinical investigations.

Our preclinical evaluation which includes, but are not limited to:

• Clinical score of arthritis assessment
• Body weight measurement
• Immunohistochemically evaluation of the arthritis pathology in joints
• Evaluation of ankle and paw joint swelling
• Assessment of major immune factors such as IL-1, TNF-α, etc.
• Flow cytometric analysis of the inflammatory cells

Creative Animodel fully understands the significance of RA related research and the importance of choosing the right model for RA study. Our experts and scientists have plenty of experience in rheumatoid arthritis research and they would work closely with you on every step to choose and develop the most appropriate study plan for RA. Hope we can cooperate in the near future.

References:
1. Brand, D.D.; et al. Collagen-induced arthritis. Nat Protoc 2. 2007,1269-1275.
2. Nandakumar, K.S.; et al. Antibody-induced arthritis: disease mechanisms and genes involved at the effector phase of arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006, 8, 223.
3. Zhi-cheng Zhang.; et al. Ciclamilast Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in a Rat Model, BioMed Research International. 2015.

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