Creative Animodel is specialized in providing an integrated portfolio of thrombosis models to improve the molecular understanding and treatment of thrombosis. With cutting-edge facilities and technologies, we have strong expertise in developing disease models suited for testing disease-modifying compounds or drugs. What’s more, customized thrombosis models can be designed and developed on your demand.
What Is Thrombosis?
Thrombosis is the formation process of a blood clot (also called a thrombus) within the blood vessel. The clot can hinder the flow of blood in the affected area, and even cause serious complications when the clot transfers to a vital part of the circulatory system, like the brain or the lungs. The body produces platelets and fibrin to form a blood clot as a result of an injured blood vessel or certain conditions. Thrombosis is typically linked to cancer, trauma and surgery. Furthermore, hypoxia and embolization are two common complications of thrombosis.
Thrombosis can be divided into venous thrombosis and arterial thrombosis based on the location of thrombus. Arterial thrombus typically consists of platelet aggregates (known as white thombus), while venous thrombus is mainly composed of fibrin and red blood cells (known as red thrombus).
Figure 1. The schematic diagram of arterial thrombus (A) and venous thrombus (B).
• Arterial thrombosis, also called atherothrombosis, occurs within the arteries and often follows rupture of atheroma,
likely leading to stroke, myocardial infarction, limb ischemia, etc.
• Venous thrombosis occurs within the veins and can be categorized further into deep vein thrombosis, portal vein
thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, jugular vein thrombosis, Budd-Chiari Syndrome, Paget-Schoetter disease and
cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.
How to Establish Thrombosis Models?
Hypercoagulability, endothelial cell injury and disturbed blood flow are the main mechanisms of thrombosis formation, which provides information on how to develop thrombosis models to meet researches on pathogenesis, prevention and treatment. Thus, thrombosis models in laboratory are developed via mechanical disruption, photochemical injury, and ferric chloride (FeCl3) induction. Among these experimental approaches, FeCl3 is the most commonly used one to induce thrombosis and has made valuable contributions to the molecular understanding and treatment of thrombosis.
Figure 2. The experimental approaches to developing thrombosis models: ferric chloride models (A), photochemical injury models (B), laser-induced intravital microscopy system (C) and mechanical wire injury models (D).
Our Thrombosis Models
We provide a comprehensive portfolio of thrombosis models dedicated to covering various types of thrombosis.
• Ferric chloride models
C57BL/6 mice or genetically engineered mice are anesthetized and a thrombus is induced by applying a solution of ferric chloride to the adventitial surface of the carotid artery or the femoral vein to develop arterial or venous thrombosis models respectively.
• Photochemical models
Rose Bengal has been proven particularly effective to induce vascular injury leading to thrombosis. Rodents are anesthetized and a 540-nm green laser light is trained on the surgically exposed common carotid artery from a distance of 5 cm. Rose Bengal is then injected to induce occlusive thrombosis.
• Mechanical injury models
We provide various mechanical injury models for your research, including ligation, stenosis and electrolytic models. The ligation models develop thrombi in the absence of blood flow, while the other two models develop thrombi in the presence of blood flow.
Model Characteristics and Evaluation
The primary endpoint of time to complete occlusion, in-life evaluation of blood flow, Doppler flow, and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) blood flow scores.
• Various thrombosis models that fit for your research.
• A combination of thrombus formation techniques with transgenic technology provides a better understanding
of gene function.
• Integrated technical platforms, including real-time intravital microscopy and high-speed digital imaging, are
able to monitor and demonstrate the thrombus formation process.
• Comprehensive parameters are contained in our data report.
• Efficacy testing service are available based on your demand.
Creative Animodel, as a preclinical Contract Research Organization (CRO), has spent decades of efforts to provide specialty pharmacology services in human diseases. Our state-of-the-art facility and profound pharmaceutical knowledge enhance our capabilities to optimize and exploit disease models to advance the pharmaceutical industries.
1. Westrick, R.J. et al.; Murine models of vascular thrombosis. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 27.10 (2007): 2079-2093.
2. Diaz, J.A.; et al. Critical review of mouse models of venous thrombosis. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 32.3 (2012): 556-562.