Wound Healing Models
Creative Animodel is a Contract Research Organization of pharmacological assays based on our disease models. With decades of experience and unparalleled platforms, our talented scientists are dedicated to the improved understanding of wound healing and the development of safe and effective wound healing therapies.
The Wound Healing Process
Wound healing represents a morphogenetic response to injury and can be divided into acute wound healing and chronic wound healing. Acute wound healing is a complex and dynamic process commonly involving four overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling, while some chronic, non-healing wounds fail to follow this process, like diabetic foot ulcers and venous leg ulcers.
First, during the hemostasis and inflammatory phases, platelets secrete growth factors and cytokines with adherence to the fibrin plug. The increase in vascular permeability caused by serotonin secreted from mast cells and chemokine secreted from various cells further prompt the migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils into the wound site. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, which are replaced by macrophages later on, secrete additional cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to kill bacteria. And then come to the proliferation phase led by TGF-β, a cytokine secreted by macrophages, is characterized by the formation of granulation and epithelial tissues. Finally, the remodeling phase occurs when fibroblasts in the wound differentiate into myofibroblasts, which express α-smooth muscle actin and mediate wound contraction.
Figure 1. Phases of wound healing process: (A) hemostasis, (B) inflammation, (C) proliferation, and (D) remodeling (Sun et al. 2014).
Wound Healing Models at Creative Animodel
Understanding wound healing contributes to the development of medicine in all fields, including areas as far-reaching as cancer, obesity, and diabetes. The complexity of wound healing can not currently be replicated by in vitro models and thus demands the use of animal models. Creative Animodel offers a variety of wound healing models in both murines (for earlier research) and pigs (for drug efficacy studies).
• Murine models
Murine models have significant advantages because they are cheap, small, and readily genetically modified. Despite the limitations of a dominant contractile wound and a much higher density of hair follicles, rodents are still suited for the earlier research.
• Porcine models
Porcine models have emerged as an ideal choice to study the pathophysiology of various wound types and evaluate wound healing therapies due to the high correlation to human wound healing. Validated porcine models include but do not restrict to chronic ischemic/non-ischemic wound models, diabetic wound models, burn models.
• Various wound healing models
Our wound healing models include excisional and incisional wound models, sunburn models, thermal burn models, diabetic wound models, laser resurfacing, surgical suturing with tension, pigmented skin wound models, which are induced by thermal, mechanical, or chemical methods.
• Wound measurement
The Silhouette Star System is an accurate 3D digital wound assessment tool approved by FDA.
• Integrated evaluation package
Clinical endpoints, wound image, inflammation score, histology, immunohistochemistry, biomarkers analysis, etc.
• Statistical analysis of drug efficacy data
Creative Animodel has spent decades of efforts to provide specialty pharmacology services in human diseases. Our state-of-the-art facilities and profound pharmaceutical knowledge enhance our capabilities to optimize and exploit disease models to advance the pharmaceutical industries.
1. Seaton, M.; et al. Porcine models of cutaneous wound healing. ILAR journal. 2015, 56(1): 127-138. 2. Sun, B. K.; et al. Advances in skin grafting and treatment of cutaneous wounds. Science. 2014, 346(6212): 941-945.